Physical and mathematical modeling of the argon …
The model was used to deal with and analyze the austenitic stainless steel making (including ultra-low carbon steel) and was tested on data of 32 heats obtained in producing 304 grade steel in an 18 t AOD vessel. The changes in the bath composition and temperature during the refining process with time can be accurately predicted using this model.
A Physical Modelling Study of Mixing in an AOD Converter
During the last four decades, the Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD) process has been established as one of the most efficient processes for stainless steel making. The process consists of several stages: coined top- and side-blowing decarburization, side-blowing decarburization, reduction of slag, desulfurization and alloying (if it is needed).
Technical Review UDC 699 . 14 . 018 . 8 - Nippon Steel
2012-9-14 · the gas volume is high. The V-AOD process (also called the vacuum converter refiner, or VCR) 2) was developed by Daido Steel Co., Ltd. in 1991 as a process coining the advantages of AOD and VOD. The V-AOD process is a low-oxygen decarburizing process wherein vacuum facilities are added to an AOD furnace, and carbon
Modeling of Gas flows in Steelmaking Decarburization …
2013-9-13 · process, which is used for producing stainless steels with ultra-low carbon grades, was investigated for different vessel pressures. Moreover, the post coustion phenomena in a BOF or LD (Linz-Donawitz) process as well as an AOD (Argon Oxygen Decarburization) process were studied focusing on the decarburization stage.
How Is Stainless Steel Made? | Metal Supermarkets - …
2016-5-25 · Stainless steel is known for excellent corrosion resistance. It is an integral part of modern life and is used in a range of appliions, including heavy industry, architecture, automotive manufacture, surgery and dentistry.. Until the 1950s and 1960s, which saw the development of AOD (argon oxygen decarburization) and VOD (vacuum oxygen decarburization), the processes to produce stainless
Steel Melting (BOF/EAF) | Carmeuse
2020-8-20 · Steel makers face numerous challenges in the steel melting process due to variability in raw materials. Carmeuse supplies quality products which are consistent in properties to help steel makers overcome these challenges allowing you to focus on producing cleaner steel. IMPACT YOUR PROFITABILITY Read case studies Read white papers Profitability Solutions: Our products include
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2009-10-21 · etc., implements the throughout-process quality control from iron-making, steel-making (BOF, EAF), hot-rolled coil, heavy plate, bar steel to tube making and processing, is superior in scale with regard to the comprehensive production of the giant steel complex
ULTRASONIC TESTING PROCEDURE FOR FORGINGS, …
2017-2-2 · ASTM E428 Standard Practice for Fabriion and Control of Steel Reference Blocks Used in Ultrasonic Testing ASTM E587 Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Angle Beam Examination by the Contact Method ASTM E2375 Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of Wrought Products 4.0 GENERAL
Converter refining processes, AOD and CLU®, are supplied for stainless steel and ferroalloy industry. The CLU process includes superheated steam to reduce or eliminate the need of Argon as well for a highly effective temperature control of the converter to prolong refractory lifetime.
Vacuum converter CONVAC: Superb stainless steel …
2020-1-15 · The typical production route for stainless and special steel grades uses AOD converters and VOD ladle treatment facilities. The vacuum converter (CONVAC) offers significantly reduced production costs resulting from reduced consumption of argon, shorter process times and hugely lower refractory costs as well as a new option to refine ferroalloys to low carbon (LC) and ultra-low carbon (ULC) grades.
Stainless Steel Refining Processes
The AOD uses a vessel that has a 3 step process in refining the stainless steel. Get Price; Introduction and secondary refining - Iron and steelmaking And we will also discuss about different type of steel making process for stainless steel. This figure shows process overview of whole steelmaking plant. And we have covered the raw material
what is stainless steel slag processing good
5 Things You Need to Know About Food. Apr 04, 2012· D. Sichen, in Fundamentals of Metallurgy, 2005. 9.5.1 Slag–metal mixing. In steelmaking, slag–metal mixing is a very common phenomenon and it occurs due to the shear at the slag–metal interface caused by excessive liquid steel flow. 37 This mixing leads to emulsifiion of steel in slag, which increases the total interfacial area and
EVALUATION ON HEAT AND MATERIALS BALANCE OF …
2015-6-15 · The argon-oxygen-decarburization (AOD) process is a common metallurgical treatment to decarburize by using oxygen and insert gas injection through bottom tuyeres and a top-lance. AOD converters are characterized by a fast and so as to reduce the amount of dust during the steel-making process. Zhu and Wei[8,9] had
How stainless steel is made - material, manufacture, …
Nibbling is a process of cutting by blanking out a series of overlapping holes and is ideally suited for irregular shapes. Stainless steel can also be cut using flame cutting, which involves a flame-fired torch using oxygen and propane in conjunction with iron powder. This method is clean and fast.
Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD) converter | …
2020-7-3 · Stainless steel melting, followed by refining in an AOD demands extremely tight controls over the entire process, from selecting the raw materials to refining and casting. A typical EAF practice would be to melt-down under a basic reducing slag. The AOD slag plays an important role from decarburization to lowering sulphur levels and reducing expensive oxides back into the
MPA - Mineral Products Association - Products
2018-10-24 · The AOD process is a secondary steel making process for the refinement and manufacture of different grades of stainless steels in a ladle furnace. This process produces a slag that is then further treated to prevent dusting of the aggregate. Both these slags are removed and tipped into pits where they are air cooled with the assistance of water.
ISIJ International | Steel Science Portal
Steel Science Portal is a website for accessing the latest information about steel-related technology. The site provides a cross-search function for accessing treatises in the field of steel technology, a database of report abstracts from the main steel and steel-related journals, links to the principle journals and steel company technical reports, as well as links to steel-related news and
A computer-simulation model for AOD process control.
2016-1-4 · a model. A mathematical model developed for use as an AOD process control tool is described in this thesis. Description of the AOD Process In the AOD process, a stainless steel charge is melted in an electric furnace and then transferred to a separate refining vessel shaped like an oxygen converter. (See Figure 1).
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Stainless steel making and refining, AOD, GOR, MRP, Ladle, Fired Dolomite bricks, Tempered Dolomite bricks, Co-clinker bricks, Dolomite mixes. Industry and Steel Industry. Refractory solution for
Steel Glossary | Glossary of Terms | Platts
In the AOD process, a mixture of argon and oxygen is blown through the molten steel in the ladle furnace, and the oxygen achieves the main objective of oxidising unwanted carbon in the steel melt. But because the vital and expensive chromium contained in all stainless steels is also prone to oxidation and subsequent loss with the process slag
Vacuum Degassing of Steel
2020-8-19 · During the steelmaking process, while the molten steel is still in the ladle and before it is poured, the steel must be degassed in order to: (1) reduce/eliminate dissolved gases, especially hydrogen and nitrogen; (2) reduce dissolved carbon (to improve ductility); and (3) to promote preferential oxidation of dissolved carbon (over chromium) when refining stainless steel grades. In the steel
Evaluation on material and heat balance of EAF processes
2018-12-10 · production data. Besides EAF, AOD is also an important process for decarburization with respect to stainless steel making. In recent years, over 75% stainless steel is being produced through AOD process, hence extensive research has been carried out on the mass and heat balances for AOD…
Secondary steel making processes - LinkedIn SlideShare
SECONDARY STEEL MAKING PROCESSES (I)AOD PROCESS (II)VOD PROCESS (iii)CLU PROCESS (iv)LADLE FURNACE 5. RH DEGASSER TECHNIQUE 3. What is Steel is an alloy of Iron and Carbon containing less than 2% carbon. Commonly used automotive and construction steels contain 0.05 – 0.5 % C Modern steels often contain additional elements for improved properties
Dynamic On-Line Control of Stainless Steel Making in …
A new dynamic control model based on simultaneous mass transfer of C, Cr, and Mn and dynamic heat balance is developed. It allows dynamic adjustment of argon-oxygen ratio. The model is implemented through Level II control system. The total operating period of one heat is divided into five different stages: charge calculation, first blow period, second blow period, third blow period and, lastly
12.5.1 Steel Minimills
2015-9-10 · 18.104.22.168 Process Description In a minimill, scrap metal is melted and refined in an electric arc furnace (EAF) to make steel products. Generally, molten steel is produced in an EAF and then tapped from the EAF to a ladle. The molten steel is then usually …